Individuals are inherently free to make choices for themselves and must accept responsibility for
the consequences of the choices they make. My support of an individual’s right to make choices
in life does not mean that I necessarily approve or disapprove of those choices. No individual,
group, or government may rightly initiate force against any other individual, group, or
government. Libertarians reject the notion that groups have inherent rights. I support the rights
of the smallest minority, the individual.

1.1 Self-Ownership
Individuals own their bodies and have rights over them that other individuals, groups, and
governments may not violate. Individuals have the freedom and responsibility to decide what
they knowingly and voluntarily consume, and what risks they accept to their own health,
finances, safety, or life.

1.2 Expression and Communication
I support full freedom of expression and oppose government censorship, regulation, or control
of communications media and technology. Language that is perceived to be offensive to certain
groups or individuals is not a cause for any legal action. Speech that is not literally a threat of
aggression or violence is not in itself aggression or violence and can never be used to justify
aggression or violence. Individuals are responsible for their own reactions to speech. I favor the
freedom to engage in or abstain from any religious activities that do not violate the rights of
others. I oppose government actions that either aid or attack any religion.

1.3 Privacy
Libertarians advocate individual privacy and government transparency. I am committed to
ending government’s practice of spying on everyone. I support the rights recognized by the
Fourth Amendment to be secure in our persons, homes, property, and communications.
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure should include records held by third parties,
such as email, medical, and library records.

1.4 Personal Relationships
Sexual orientation, preference, gender, or gender identity should have no impact on the
government’s treatment of individuals, such as in current marriage, child custody, adoption,
immigration, or military service laws. Government does not have the authority to define,
promote, license, or restrict personal relationships, regardless of the number of participants.
Consenting adults should be free to choose their own sexual practices and personal
relationships. Until such time as the government stops its illegitimate practice of marriage
licensing, such licenses must be granted to all consenting adults who apply.

1.5 Parental Rights
Parents, or other guardians, have the right to raise their children according to their own
standards and beliefs, provided that the rights of children to be free from abuse and neglect are
also protected.

1.6 Adult Rights and Responsibilities
Once individuals are presumed to have adequate judgment to vote and serve on a jury or in the
military, they should also be presumed to have sufficient judgment to decide their own purchase
and use of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, cannabis, and engage in other activities currently
restricted by government due to age.

1.7 Crime and Justice
Government force must be limited to the protection of the rights of individuals to life, liberty, and
property, and governments must never be permitted to violate these rights. Laws should be
limited in their application to violations of the rights of others through force or fraud, or to
deliberate actions that place others involuntarily at significant risk of harm. Therefore, I favor the
repeal of all laws creating “crimes” without victims, such as gambling, the use of drugs for
medicinal or recreational purposes, and consensual transactions involving sexual services. I
support restitution to the victim to the fullest degree possible at the expense of the criminal or
the negligent wrongdoer. The constitutional rights of the criminally accused, including due
process, a speedy trial, legal counsel, trial by jury, and the legal presumption of innocence until
proven guilty, must be preserved. I assert the common-law right of juries to judge not only the
facts but also the justice of the law. I oppose the prosecutorial practice of “over-charging” in
criminal prosecutions so as to avoid jury trials by intimidating defendants into accepting plea
bargains. Additionally, I support the abolition of qualified immunity so that law enforcement and
prosecutors would be held legally accountable for misconduct that leads to wrongful convictions
or other acts of injustice.

1.8 Death Penalty
I oppose the administration of the death penalty by the state.

1.9 Self-Defense
The only legitimate use of force is in defense of individual rights — life, liberty, and justly
acquired property — against aggression. This right inheres in the individual, who may agree to
be aided by any other individual or group. I affirm the individual right recognized by the Second
Amendment to keep and bear arms, and oppose the prosecution of individuals for exercising
their rights of self-defense. Private property owners should be free to establish their own
conditions regarding the presence of personal defense weapons on their own property. I oppose
all laws at any level of government restricting, registering, or monitoring the ownership,
manufacture, or transfer of firearms, ammunition, or firearm accessories.

Libertarians want all members of society to have abundant opportunities to achieve economic
success. A free and competitive market allocates resources in the most efficient manner. Each
person has the right to offer goods and services to others on the free market. The only proper
role of government in the economic realm is to protect property rights, adjudicate disputes, and
provide a legal framework in which voluntary trade is protected. All efforts by government to
redistribute wealth, or to control or manage trade, are improper in a free society.

2.1 Aggression, Property, and Contract
Aggression is the use, trespass against, or invasion of the borders of another person’s owned
resource (property) without the owner’s consent; or the threat thereof. I oppose all acts of
aggression as illegitimate and unjust, whether committed by private actors or the state.
Each person is the presumptive owner of his or her own body (self-ownership), which right may
be forfeited only as a consequence of committing an act of aggression. Property rights in
external, scarce resources are determined in accordance with the principles of original
appropriation or homesteading (whereby a person becomes an owner of an unowned resource
by first use and transformation), contract (whereby the owner consensually transfers ownership
to another person), and rectification (whereby an owner’s property rights in certain resources
are transferred to a victim of the owner’s tort, trespass, or aggression to compensate the victim).
As respect for property rights is fundamental to maintaining a free and prosperous society, it
follows that the freedom to contract to obtain, retain, profit from, manage, or dispose of one’s
property must also be upheld. Libertarians would free property owners from government
restrictions on their rights to control and enjoy their property, as long as their choices do not
harm or infringe on the rights of others. Eminent domain, civil asset forfeiture, governmental
limits on profits, governmental production mandates, and governmental controls on prices of
goods and services (including wages, rents, and interest) are abridgements of such
fundamental rights. For voluntary dealings among private entities, parties should be free to
choose with whom they trade and set whatever trade terms are mutually agreeable.

2.2 Environment
Competitive free markets and property rights stimulate the technological innovations and
behavioral changes required to protect our environment and ecosystems. Private landowners
and conservation groups have a vested interest in maintaining natural resources. Governments
are unaccountable for damage done to our environment and have a terrible track record when it
comes to environmental protection. Protecting the environment requires a clear definition and
enforcement of individual rights and responsibilities regarding resources like land, water, air, and
wildlife. Where damages can be proven and quantified in a court of law, restitution to the injured
parties must be required.

2.3 Energy and Resources
While energy is needed to fuel a modern society, government should not be subsidizing any
particular form of energy. I oppose all government control of energy pricing, allocation, and

2.4 Government Finance and Spending
Since all persons are entitled to keep the fruits of their labor, I oppose all government activity
that consists of the forcible collection of money or goods from individuals in violation of their
individual rights and strive for the eventual repeal of all taxation. To further that end, I call for the
repeal of the income tax, the abolishment of the Internal Revenue Service and all federal
programs and services not required under the U.S. Constitution. I oppose forcing employers to
serve as tax collectors. I support any initiative to reduce or abolish any tax, and oppose any
increase on any tax for any reason. To the extent possible, I advocate that all public services be
funded or allowed to be provided in a voluntary manner.

2.5 Government Debt
Government should not incur debt, which burdens future generations without their consent. I
support the passage of a “Balanced Budget Amendment” to the U.S. Constitution, provided that
the budget is balanced exclusively by cutting expenditures, and not by raising taxes.

2.6 Government Employees
I favor repealing any requirement that one must join or pay dues to a union as a condition of
government employment. I advocate replacing defined-benefit pensions with
defined-contribution plans, as are commonly offered in the private sector, so as not to impose
debt on future generations without their consent.

2.7 Money and Financial Markets
I favor free-market banking, with unrestricted competition among banks and depository
institutions of all types. Markets are not actually free unless fraud is vigorously combated. Those
who enjoy the possibility of profits must not impose risks of losses upon others, such as through
government guarantees or bailouts. I support ending federal student loan guarantees and
special treatment of student loan debt in bankruptcy proceedings. Individuals engaged in
voluntary exchange should be free to use as money any mutually agreeable commodity or item.
I support a halt to inflationary monetary policies and unconstitutional legal tender laws.

2.8 Marketplace Freedom
Libertarians support free markets. I defend the right of individuals to form commercial
enterprises based on voluntary association. I oppose all forms of government subsidies and
bailouts to business, labor, or any other special interest. Government should not compete with
private enterprise. I reject government charter of corporations. I call for a separation of business
and state.

2.9 Licensing
Libertarians support the right of every person to earn an honest and peaceful living through the
free and voluntary exchange of goods and services. Accordingly, I oppose occupational and
other licensing laws that infringe on this right or treat it as a state-granted privilege. I encourage
certifications by voluntary associations of professionals.

2.10 Sex Work
The Libertarian Party supports the decriminalization of prostitution. I assert the right of
consenting adults to provide sexual services to clients for compensation, and the right of clients
to purchase sexual services from consenting sex workers.

2.11 Labor Markets
Employment and compensation agreements between private employers and employees are
outside the scope of government, and these contracts should not be encumbered by
government-mandated benefits or social engineering. I support the right of private employers
and employees to choose whether or not to bargain with each other through a labor union.
Bargaining should be free of government interference, such as compulsory arbitration or
imposing an obligation to bargain.

2.12 Education
Education is best provided by the free market, achieving greater quality, accountability, and
efficiency with more diversity of choice. Recognizing that the education of children is a parental
responsibility, I would restore authority to parents to determine the education of their children,
without interference from government. Parents should have control of and responsibility for all
funds expended for their children’s education.

2.13 Health Care
I favor a free market health care system. Medical facilities, medical providers, and medical
products (including drugs) must be freely available in the marketplace without government
restrictions or licenses. I recognize the freedom of individuals to determine the level of health
insurance they want (if any), the level of health care they want, the care providers they want, the
medicines and treatments they will use and all other aspects of their medical care, including
end-of-life decisions. People should be free to purchase health insurance across state lines. I
oppose governments either mandating, or restricting voluntary access to, medical treatments or
procedures including vaccines.

2.14 Retirement and Income Security
Retirement planning is the responsibility of the individual, not the government. Libertarians
would phase out the current government-sponsored Social Security system and transition to a
private voluntary system. The proper and most effective source of help for the poor is the
voluntary efforts of private groups and individuals. I believe members of society will become
even more charitable and civil society will be strengthened as government reduces its activity in
this realm.

In the United States, constitutional limits on government were intended to prevent the
infringement of individual rights by those in power. The only proper purpose of government,
should it exist, is the protection of individual rights. The principle of non-initiation of force should
guide relationships between governments.

3.1 National Defense
I support the maintenance of a sufficient military to defend the United States against aggression.
The United States should both avoid entangling alliances and abandon its attempts to act as
policeman for the world. I oppose any form of compulsory national service.

3.2 Internal Security and Individual Rights
Individual rights shall not be curtailed, whether based on circumstances of war, epidemic,
natural disaster or emergency, or any other pretense. Intelligence agencies that legitimately
seek to preserve the security of the nation must be subject to oversight and transparency. I
oppose the government’s use of secret classifications to keep from the public information that it
should have, especially that which shows that the government has violated the law. I oppose the
use of torture and other cruel and unusual punishments, without exception.

3.3 International Affairs
American foreign policy should emphasize peace with all nations, entangling alliances with
none. I would end the current U.S. government policies of foreign intervention including military
and economic aid; tariffs; economic sanctions; and regime change. I recognize the right of all
people to resist tyranny and defend themselves and their rights. I condemn the use of force, and
especially the use of terrorism, against the innocent, regardless of whether such acts are
committed by governments or by political or revolutionary groups.

3.4 Free Trade and Migration
I support the removal of governmental impediments to free trade. Political freedom and escape
from tyranny demand that individuals not be unreasonably constrained by government in the
crossing of political boundaries. Economic freedom demands the unrestricted movement of
human as well as financial capital across national borders.

3.5 Rights and Discrimination
Libertarians embrace the concept that all people are born with certain inherent rights. I reject the
idea that a natural right can ever impose an obligation upon others to fulfill that “right.” I uphold
and defend the rights of every person, regardless of their race, ethnicity, or any other aspect of
their identity. Government should neither deny nor abridge any individual’s human right based
upon sex, wealth, ethnicity, creed, age, national origin, personal habits, political preference, or
sexual orientation. Members of private organizations retain their rights to set whatever
standards of association they deem appropriate, and individuals are free to respond with
ostracism, boycotts, and other free market solutions.

3.6 Representative Government
I staunchly defend the rights to petition the government for redress of grievances and to express
dissent. These rights are thwarted when government acts behind closed doors. I support
election systems that are more representative of the electorate at the federal, state, and local
levels, such as proportional representation, alternative voting systems, and explicit inclusion of
“none of the above” on all ballots. As private voluntary groups, political parties should be free to
establish their own rules for nomination procedures, primaries and conventions. I call for an end
to any tax-financed subsidies to candidates or parties and the repeal of all laws that restrict
voluntary financing of election campaigns. I oppose laws that effectively exclude alternative
candidates and parties, deny ballot access, gerrymander districts, or deny the voters their right
to consider all alternatives. I advocate initiative, referendum, recall, repeal, and oppose any
effort to deny these options when used as popular checks on government.

3.7 Self-Determination
Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of individual liberty, it is the right of the
people to alter, abolish, or withdraw from it, and to agree to such new governance, or none, as
to them shall seem most likely to protect their liberty. I recognize the right to political
self-determination, including secession. Exercise of this right does not require permission from

In every matter, I advocate the consistent application of the principle of the non-initiation of
coercion, physical force, or fraud. My silence about any other particular government law,
regulation, ordinance, directive, edict, control, regulatory agency, activity, or machination should
not be construed to imply approval.